The first in first out (FIFO), average, specific-identification, retail, and normal or base-stock methods are allowed for inventory valuation. The last in first out (LIFO) method is not permitted.
Capital gains are taxed as ordinary income. However, capital gains derived from the sale of stock issued by a Peruvian company through the Lima Stock Exchange are taxed at a 5% rate, provided that the seller is a non-domiciled party.
An exemption has been granted as of January 2016 until December 2019 for the sale of shares performed through the Lima Stock Exchange as long as these requirements are met:
- No more than 10% interest is transferred.
- The stock has market presence.
Cash dividends distributed to resident corporations are not subject to any taxes.
The PITL establishes that the WHT rate on interest arising from loans for non-resident corporations is 4.99%, provided the following requirements are met:
- In case of cash loans, the entrance into Peru of the foreign currency must be duly accredited.
- The credit must not accrue an effective interest that surpasses the preferential rate prevailing in the place where it comes from, plus three points.
- If the credit proceeds from the United States or from Europe, the company shall apply the preferential rate to the London Interbank Offered Rate (LIBOR) plus four points.
- The loan must be destined to finance business or taxable activities.
- The parties involved must not qualify as related parties for tax purposes.
Royalties paid to non-domiciled parties are subject to a 30% withholding rate, to the extent that the goods or rights generating royalties are economically used in the country or the royalties are paid by a domiciled taxpayer.
A Peruvian corporation is taxed on Peruvian and foreign-source income. For active income of foreign source, the company must pay taxes in the fiscal year in which the earned income is accrued. For passive income, the company must pay taxes in the fiscal year in which the income is perceived.