In general, taxpayers may deduct expenses paid or accrued during the year in connection with their business and aimed at income generation. All expenses must be substantiated by documentary proof.
The deduction of certain expenses is subject to specific ceilings. Such expenses include representation expenses, which are deductible at up to 1% of gross income. Furthermore, deductible norms for business travel expenses are established periodically by the government.
Tax depreciation is based on accounting depreciation. Depreciation is accrued based on the straight-line method. Accelerated depreciation is also allowed based on specific consent of the Ministry of Finance. A Presidential Decree establishes the maximum depreciation rates, ranging from 5% to 25%, for five different groups of assets.
Generally, for the purposes of CIT, depreciation accrued is deductible. Fixed assets acquired free of charge, as well as assets of non-commercial legal entities, budget organisations, and public associations, should be excluded from depreciable assets for CIT purposes, even if they are used for generating income.
Fixed assets provided under operational lease shall be depreciated by the lessor. Fixed assets provided under financial lease shall be depreciated by the lessee.
There are no provisions for goodwill in Turkmenistan tax legislation.
Pre-incorporation costs are generally non-deductible.
Interest expense occurring from debt instruments of any kind should be deductible for CIT purposes, provided that the purpose of the underlying debt relates to the entrepreneurial activity of the taxpayer.
Interest expense incurred by a foreign legal entity abroad and recharged to its branch in Turkmenistan is generally not deductible unless specifically addressed by applicable DTTs.
The Tax Code permits a taxpayer to include provisions for uncollectable debts as well as losses incurred as a result of expiration of the collection period for accounts receivable.
There are no specific restrictions on deductibility of charitable contributions. However, they may be disallowed under the general restriction of non-business-related deductions.
Repair and maintenance expenses
Deductible expenditures for the repair of fixed assets shall be comprised of the cost of spare parts and consumable materials used for repair, remuneration of employees carrying out the repairs, and other expenditures associated with such repairs, including payments to third parties for the purpose of such repairs.
Research and development (R&D) expenses
R&D costs (including those that produced no positive result) shall be subject to deduction from gross revenue, except for costs associated with the purchase of fixed assets, their installation, and other costs of a capital nature.
Fines and penalties
Fines, penalties, and other financial sanctions (except for tax-related ones) are deductible for CIT purposes.
For CIT purposes, the following taxes are deductible: property tax; subsurface-use tax; levies established by the Tax Code (except the special-purpose duty for the improvement of urban and rural territories); accrued amounts of VAT in selling goods, performing work, and rendering of services; and amounts of excise tax included in the price of sold excisable goods by manufacturers of such goods.
Net operating losses
Loss is defined as excess of allowable deductions over gross revenue. Losses shall be carried forward and deducted in subsequent tax (reporting) periods, but not for more than three years. Losses cannot be carried back.
Payments to foreign affiliates
Administrative and management expenses incurred by the head office of a branch in Turkmenistan are not deductible at the branch level.