The tax year is the corporation’s annual accounting period specified in its articles of incorporation. A Japan branch of a foreign corporation must use the same accounting period that is adopted by the corporation in its home country.
Corporate income tax returns (i.e. the national corporation tax return, enterprise tax return, and local inhabitants’ tax return) are self-assessment tax returns.
If a corporation meets certain conditions, such as keeping certain accounting books, and makes an application for it in advance, it is allowed to file a ‘blue form’ tax return. A ‘blue form’ filing corporation may benefit from loss carryforward and other benefits.
A corporation (including a branch) is required to file the final tax return within two months after the end of its annual accounting period. If a corporation cannot file the final return because of specific reasons, the due date of the final return may be extended by up to four months (a corporation should be a company subject to the statutory financial audit as required in the corporate law) with the tax authority’s approval.
Payment of tax
Income taxes payable on the final corporate income tax return should be paid on or before the filing due date of the final tax returns (usually two months after the end of the corporation’s accounting period). If an extension of time for filing is granted, the taxes may be paid on or before the extended due date with interest accrued at a rate of 1.8% (for the year 2018) per annum for the period from the day following the original due date (i.e. two months after the end of an accounting period) to the date of the actual payment.
Provisional tax payments are required for a corporation that has a fiscal period longer than six months. Provisional taxes generally are computed as one-half of the tax liabilities for the previous year, but they may be reduced by the filing of interim tax returns that reflect semi-annual results of the operations. The provisional tax payment is required to be made within two months after the end of the sixth month of the corporation’s accounting period.
If the tax return is filed late, a late filing penalty is imposed at 15% to 20% of the tax balance due. In the case that a corporation voluntarily files the tax return after the due date, this penalty may be reduced to 5%. The rate is increased to 15% (for non-filing) and 10% (for amendment filing) once the tax audit notice is received.
An under-payment penalty is imposed at 10% to 15% of additional tax due. In the case that a corporation amends a tax return and tax liabilities voluntarily after the due date, this penalty may not be levied.
In addition, interest for the late payment of tax is levied at 2.6% per annum for the first two months and increases to 8.9% per annum thereafter (for the year 2018).
The parent company will file the consolidated tax return and pay national corporate income tax for the group. The consolidated tax return and payment due dates are the same as previously discussed; however, the due date of the final return may be extended for two months.
For local corporate income taxes, each member of the consolidated group must separately file the returns and pay the taxes.
Tax audit process
Generally speaking, corporate tax audit is performed in cycles of three to five years’ duration. However, this period may be shortened in the case that some significant tax matters were pointed out in the prior audit and so on. If taxpayers request a downward correction, a tax audit will be performed to make sure of it.
With regard to tax audit procedures, tax laws have not clarified them thus far. Prior to conducting a tax audit, in principle, tax agents are required to notify taxpayers, and, upon completion of tax audits, tax agents are required to provide to taxpayers a brief written summary of their findings, etc.
Once an audit is complete, the basic principle is that a second audit is not allowed. However, if newly acquired information is obtained by the tax authorities that lead them to conclude that the reported taxable income should have been different, then the tax authorities can conduct another audit of the taxpayer. This limitation on the ability of the tax authorities to conduct a second audit only applies if the first audit was conducted on-site. If a ‘desk audit’ is only conducted, where the tax authorities do not conduct the audit on-site, no limitation applies.
Statute of limitations
The statute of limitations to request a downward correction of prior year tax liabilities is five years (six years for transfer pricing) from when the original tax return was filed.
The statute of limitations with regard to upward corrections by the tax authorities is also five years (six years for transfer pricing).
Topics of focus for tax authorities
Tax authorities are often focusing on cross-border, inter-company transactions (i.e. transfer pricing or donation issues), PE, and significant group restructuring, among other issues. Any developments in discussion on the G20/OECD BEPS project will also be of great interest for Japanese authorities.