A resident taxpayer is an individual taxpayer (i) who has a ‘jusho’ (i.e. a residence) in Japan; or (ii) who has maintained a ‘kyosho’ (i.e. a temporary place of abode) in Japan for a period of one year or more. A resident taxpayer who is not a Japanese national and who has an aggregate stay in Japan of five years or less within the preceding ten years (60 months within the preceding 120 months) would be classified as a non-permanent resident taxpayer. If a resident taxpayer is a Japanese national, or a foreign national with an aggregate stay in Japan of more than five years within the preceding ten years, the taxpayer is considered a permanent resident taxpayer.