Value-added tax (VAT)
The VAT rate is 20%, and the VAT rate on export is 0%. VAT input is recoverable under certain conditions.
VAT is applicable to all transactions realised in Madagascar by a VAT vendor. Services are considered to be performed in Madagascar if such services are used in Madagascar or invoiced to a taxpayer established in Madagascar.
Business engaged in e-commerce is subject to VAT.
Transport companies are allowed to claim VAT input on gasoline used for land transportation. The objective is to reduce the impact of cost of oil and gas on transportation fees.
Any corporate entity or individual person who realises an annual turnover exceeding MGA 200 million is a VAT vendor. For a business realising annual revenue less than MGA 200 million, VAT vendor registration is an option.
A foreign company that has no PE in Madagascar but renders services to a Madagascar taxpayer must appoint a tax representative to collect and pay VAT on its behalf. Otherwise, the beneficiary of the services must collect and pay VAT on behalf of the foreign supplier.
All transactions made by a VAT vendor with a non-VAT vendor must be done via the banking system when the value of the transaction exceeds a threshold fixed by Decree.
Any suppliers not registered as VAT vendors engaged in public market transactions are subject to VAT at a rate of 8%, which is representative of income tax. VAT is withheld by the public treasury and paid directly to the tax authorities.
Customs and import tax
The importation of goods is subject to payment of customs and import tax payable to the customs office.
In addition, Gasynet fee, corresponding to 0.5% of the cost, insurance, and freight (CIF) value of goods, is applicable on importation of goods.
Excise duty applies on a range of goods and services, such as tobacco, alcohol, lighters, and communication by mobile phones. Excise duty rates range from 5% to 325% or are a fixed amount per litre or per unit.
Real estate ownership tax
Real estate ownership tax is imposed annually at the rate of 5% to 10% on the rental value of the property. Land ownership is also taxable at a rate depending on the nature of the land.
Registration fees are applicable to transfers of title ownership (e.g. sales, donations) of movable and immovable assets, to transfers of interests, to share capital increases, and to lease agreements.
Registration fee rates are 0.5% to 5%, depending on the nature of the transaction. The rate of 5% is applicable mainly on transfers of assets and transfers of business.
Salary income taxes, called Impôt sur les Revenus Salariaux et Assimilés (IRSA), are levied at a rate of 20% on the total taxable remuneration of employees, including salaries, allowances, and benefits in kind. Employers are responsible for withholding and paying salary income taxes on behalf of employees.
Social security contributions
Employers must contribute to Caisse Nationale de Prévoyance Sociale, Madagascar’s national social security fund, which includes pensions and accident insurance. The contribution is capped at 13% of eight times the legal minimum salary per employee.
Employers must contribute to the health system assessment at a rate of 5% of the total amount of taxable remuneration of its employees. The contribution may or may not be capped at 5% of eight times the legal minimum salary per employee, depending on the health system organisation where the company is affiliated.
Tax on insurance contracts
All insurance or life annuity conventions concluded with a company, insurance firm, or with any other Madagascan or other insurer are subject to an annual tax on insurance contracts at a rate of 3% to 20% levied on the insurance premiums.
Concerning local tax, generally called ‘para-fiscal taxes’, the following are introduced in the tax code applicable from January 2017. These local taxes are not new since they already existed; however, their introduction to the tax code results from the principle that only a financial act can introduce tax. The following are the maximum rates/amounts:
- Civil protection tax: MGA 5,000 per domestic animal or bladed weapon (arme blanche).
- Residence tax for development: MGA 5,000.
- Tourist tax (or stay tax): MGA 500 to MGA 2,000 per night/room.
- Tax on mineral waters: MGA 5 per litre.
- Advertising tax: MGA 30 to MGA 30,000 per square metre.
- Tax on water and/or electricity: 10%.
- Tax on entering parties, shows, and various events: 3% to 5%.
- Tax on pylons, antennas, relays, or masts: MGA 600,000.
- Tax on radio and television games: MGA 10/sms; MGA 20/call.