The following are considered to be resident in Israel:
- A company incorporated in Israel.
- A company whose business is managed and controlled from Israel.
In the absence of a definition of the term ‘management and control’ either in Israeli legislation or a direct discussion of this term by the Israeli courts, it may be difficult to determine whether a company that is incorporated outside of Israel shall be viewed as managed and controlled from Israel. This is a complex subject that needs to be addressed on a case-by-case basis. When an entity is both an Israeli tax resident and a resident of a foreign jurisdiction that is party to an income tax treaty with Israel, most treaties provide a tiebreaker test in the determination of an entity’s tax residency.
Permanent establishment (PE)
Foreign resident entities might be exempt from corporate tax to the extent that its activities do not constitute a PE under the tax treaty applicable between Israel and the foreign resident’s country of residency.
Whether a non-resident has a taxable presence under Israeli domestic tax law is far less clear than the definition of PE under a relevant tax treaty. There is no detailed legislation or Israeli court decisions that directly address this issue. In general, where there is no tax treaty protection, a non-resident is subject to tax on income accrued or derived in Israel, which is a taxation threshold lower than the PE criterion.