Foreign tax credit
In respect of Vietnamese enterprises earning income from overseas investment, CIT (or a kind of tax with a nature similar to CIT) paid in a foreign country or paid on behalf by its partner in the country receiving the investment (including tax levied on the dividend) is allowed to be creditable. The credit shall not exceed the CIT amount payable in Vietnam.
The foreign income tax that is entitled to exemption or reduction in accordance with the foreign law shall also be credited.
Inbound investment incentives
Tax incentives are granted based on regulated encouraged sectors, encouraged locations, and size of the projects.
The sectors that are encouraged by the Vietnamese government include education, health care, sport/culture, high technology, environmental protection, scientific research and technology development, infrastructural development, processing of agricultural and aquatic products, software production, and renewable energy.
The encouraged locations include qualifying economic and high-tech zones, certain industrial zones, and difficult socio-economic areas. Large manufacturing projects with investment capital of more than VND 6 trillion disbursed within three years of being licensed can also qualify for CIT incentives if:
- the minimum revenue is VND 10 trillion per annum by the fourth year of operations at the latest, and
- the minimum headcount is 3,000 by the fourth year of operations at the latest.
The preferential incentive rate applied for large manufacturing projects can be extended for a maximum additional 15 years if the project manufactures goods having ‘international competitiveness’ whose revenue exceeds VND 20 trillion per annum within five years from the first year of revenue generation, or whose average head count is over 6,000.
Large manufacturing projects include projects with investment capital of VND 12 trillion or more, disbursed within five years of being licensed (excluding those related to the manufacture of products subject to SST or those exploiting mineral resources) and using technologies appraised in accordance with relevant laws.
Further, new investment projects engaging in manufacturing industrial products prioritised for development will be entitled to CIT incentives if the products support:
- the high technology sector, or
- the garment, textile, and footwear; information technology (IT); automobiles assembly; or mechanics sector and were not produced domestically as of 1 January 2015, or, if produced domestically, they meet the quality standards of the European Union (EU) or equivalent.
The two preferential rates of 10% and 20% for 15 years and 10 years, respectively, are available starting from the commencement of generating revenue from the incentivised activities. From 1 January 2016, enterprises entitled to the pre-2016 preferential CIT rate of 20% will enjoy the rate of 17% instead. When the preferential rate expires, the CIT rate reverts to the standard rate. The preferential rate of 15% will apply for the entire project life in certain cases. Certain socialised sectors (e.g. education, health) enjoy the 10% rate for the entire life of the project.
Business expansion projects are now entitled to CIT incentives if any of the following criteria are met:
- Additional fixed assets costing at least VND 20 billion (or VND 10 billion if the projects are in certain specified regions with difficult socio-economic conditions) are invested.
- There is at least a 20% increase in the value of fixed assets compared with the period before expansion.
- There is at least a 20% increase in the designed capacity compared with the period before expansion.
Investment projects are allowed to access more favourable tax incentives available under an amended or new law on CIT for the remaining project period, from tax year 2015. This entitlement is specifically applicable to the following cases:
- Expansion projects licensed or implemented during the period from 2009 to 2013 that were not previously entitled to any CIT incentives.
- Investment projects commencing operations in industrial zones during the period from 2009 to 2013 that were not previously entitled to any CIT incentives.
- Investment projects located in areas that were not previously designated as encouraged.
Investors may be considered for tax holidays and reductions. The holidays take the form of a complete exemption from CIT for a certain period beginning immediately after the enterprise first makes profits, followed by a further period where tax is charged at 50% of the applicable rate. However, where the enterprise has not derived profits within three years of the commencement of operations, the tax holidays/tax reduction will start from the fourth year of operation. Criteria for eligibility to these holidays and reductions are set out in the CIT regulations as follows:
- Four years of tax exemption and nine subsequent years of 50% reduction shall be applied to:
- Income earned by enterprises carrying out new investment projects entitled to 10% CIT.
- Income earned by enterprises carrying out new investment projects in the socialised sectors and difficult socio-economic areas.
- Four years of tax exemption and 50% tax reduction for five subsequent years shall be given to income earned by enterprises carrying out new investment projects in the socialised sectors and in regions not included in the list of difficult socio-economic areas.
- Two years of tax exemption and four subsequent years of 50% reduction shall be applied to:
- Income earned by enterprises from carrying out new investment projects in regions with difficult socio-economic conditions.
- Income earned by enterprises from carrying out new investment projects, including production of high-grade steel, production of energy saving products, production of machinery or equipment used to serve agricultural, forestry, fishery, or salt production, production of irrigational equipment, production and refinement of foodstuff for cattle, poultry, or aquatic products, and development of traditional trades.
- Income earned by enterprises that carry out new investment projects in industrial zones (except for industrial zones located in regions with favourable socio-economic conditions).
From 1 January 2018, certain incentives including a lower CIT rate will be granted to small and medium enterprise (“SMEs”) (various criteria applied to be considered as SMEs).
Additional tax reductions may be available for engaging in manufacturing, construction, and transportation activities that employ several female staff and/or ethnic minorities. CIT reduction must correspond with the actual payment for those employees.
Research and Development (R&D) Fund
Business entities in Vietnam are allowed to set up a tax deductible R&D Fund. Enterprises can appropriate up to 10% of annual profits before tax to the fund. Various conditions apply.