A non-resident corporation will be subject to income tax at normal corporate rates on profits derived from carrying on a business in Canada. However, Canada's tax treaties generally restrict taxation of a non-resident's business income to the portion allocable to a PE situated in Canada.
In addition, a special 25% 'branch tax' applies to a non-resident's after-tax profits that are not invested in qualifying property in Canada. The branch tax essentially is equivalent to a non-resident WHT on funds repatriated to the foreign head office. In the case of a corporation resident in a treaty country, the rate at which the branch tax is levied may be reduced to the WHT rate on dividends prescribed in the relevant tax treaty (generally 5%, 10%, or 15%). Some of Canada's treaties prohibit the imposition of branch tax or provide that branch tax is payable only on earnings in excess of a threshold amount. The branch tax does not apply to transportation, communications, and iron-ore mining companies. Nor does it apply to non-resident insurers, except in special circumstances.
Whether or not a treaty applies, a non-resident corporation that has a PE in Canada may be subject to federal and provincial capital taxes (i.e. financial institutions only). See the Other taxes section.