Mongolian resident economic entities are taxable on aggregate annual income earned worldwide. Non-resident economic entities carrying out business activities in Mongolia are taxable on the income earned in the territory of Mongolia and from Mongolian sources.
Mongolian CIT is levied at the following rates, using a progressive-rate scale that ranges from 1% to 25%, as follows:
- 1% applies to entities with revenue of up to 300 million Mongolian tugrik (MNT) (except for those operating in mining, petroleum, alcoholic beverage, and tobacco industries).
- 10% applies to the first MNT 6 billion of annual taxable income.
- If annual taxable income exceeds MNT 6 billion, the tax shall be MNT 600 million plus 25% of income exceeding MNT 6 billion.
However, the income described in the chart below is excluded when determining the annual taxable income and is taxed at different tax rates on a gross basis:
|Source of income||Applicable tax rate (%)|
|Gambling, betting games, and lotteries (net)||40|
|Sale of immovable property||2|
|Sale of rights (e.g. mining licences, special activity licences, and other rights granted by the authorised organisations for conducting specific activities)||10|
Additionally, 5% tax will apply on interest income of an investor who purchased debt instruments of a local entity (not holding mineral resources, oil exploration, and mining special licences) traded in local and international stock markets.
Entities with revenue of up to MNT 300 million will submit CIT returns on a semi-annual basis and will be taxed at 1% (not applicable to entities operating in mining, petroleum, alcoholic beverage, and tobacco industries).
With the introduction of the amendment to the General Taxation Law of Mongolia, a concept of an 'ultimate holder' of a legal entity is newly introduced for tax purposes.
Any change of ultimate holders of a legal entity that maintains a mining licence or land-use (or possess) right is deemed as a sale of its mining licence or land-use right and subject to a 10% CIT (20% for non-resident). Importantly, a tax obligation is imposed on the legal entity holding such rights, but not the person who earns the income from the transaction.
'Ultimate holder' refers to the following types of persons who exercise control over management and assets of a legal entity, directly or indirectly, with a chain of ownership at one or more levels of legal entities through a number of shares, percentage of participation, or a number of voting rights:
- Holders of a majority of voting rights of a legal entity.
- Holders of a majority number of shares or shares with the highest market value of a legal entity.
- Similar others.
Assessing taxable income
In general, taxable income shall be assessed based on the value of rights pro-rated to the number of shares or percentage of participation that are transferred from a right-holding entity or its ultimate holders. For the purpose of certainty, the Ministry of Finance passed the Decrees No. 303 and 302, dated 31 December 2019, which set the following methodologies to assess taxable income:
- Methodology to assess and impose taxes on income from sales of the right to use or possess land (Decree No. 303).
- Methodology to determine the value of mining licences and assess taxes on income from transfer of mining licences (Decree No. 302).
Breach of the above-mentioned legislative requirements (including failure to comply with requirements for assessing taxes, reporting and/or concealing relevant documents and information, and providing false documentation for tax purposes) shall be subject to cancellation of the respective rights (a mining licence and/or the respective right to use or possess land).
Local income taxes
CIT is levied at the state level in Mongolia. There are no provincial or local corporate income taxes.